Friday, December 15, 2006


Mathematics (colloquially, maths, or math in American English) is the body of facts focus on theories such as quantity, arrangement, space, and change, and the academic regulation, which studies them. Benjamin Peirce called it "the science that sketches essential conclusions". It evolved, with abstraction and logical analysis, from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of corporeal substance. Mathematicians determine such theories, aspiring to make new guess and set up their truth by exact conclusion from aptly selected axioms and definitions.

Knowledge and employ of fundamental mathematics have constantly been an inherent and integral part of entity and cluster life. Alterations of the essential thoughts are noticeable in mathematical manuscripts originating in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ancient India, and Ancient China, with increased rig our later set up by the ancient Greeks. Starting this point on, the development sustained in fitful bursts in anticipation of the Renaissance time of the 16th century, when mathematical innovations interrelated with new technical discoveries, leading to a stepping up in understanding that continues to the present day.

Nowadays, mathematics is used all over the world in numerous fields, together with science, engineering, medicine and economics. The application of mathematics to such fields, frequently dubbed applied mathematics, motivates and creates use of new mathematical discoveries and from time to time show the ways to the growth of entirely new disciplines. Mathematicians as well engage in pure mathematics or math for its own sake, lack of having any practical application in mind, although applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered shortly.

Wednesday, December 06, 2006

Convection zone

Structure of the SunFrom about 0.7 solar radii to the Sun's visible surface, the material in the Sun is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the heat energy of the interior outward via radiation. As a result, thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. Once the material cools off at the surface, it plunges back downward to the base of the convection zone, to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. Convective overshoot is thought to occur at the base of the convection zone, carrying turbulent downflows into the outer layers of the radiative zone.

The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun, in the form of the solar granulation and supergranulation. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior gives rise to a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun.